Tuesday, February 17, 2009

8NAZI GERMANY - UNWCC United Nations War Crimes Commission Law Reports

NAZI GERMANY- UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES COMMISSION (UNWCC)
The focus of this post is the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC) and their 15 Volume set of Law Reports from WWII War Crimes Trials.

There are nine posts in this series on Nazi Germany. Each post touches briefly on the subject given that there are already numerous research papers, articles and books, covering each topic in depth. Many links are included in each post. For the reasoning behind writing these posts, read the Introduction HERE.

0 INTRODUCTION - Why this Series of Posts?
1 UN CHARTER & UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - Why WWII Drove The Creation Of The UDHR.
2 EUGENICS, RACIAL PURITY AND PERSECUTION - The US Influenced Nazi Germany's Eugenics Program. A Snapshot of the Diverse Groups Persecuted and Imprisoned in Concentration Camps. The Nuremberg Trial, Which Dealt With Racial Purity - RuSHA (USA vs. Ulrich Greifelt et al).
3 FORCED AND SLAVE LABOUR - Without Forced and Slave Labour the Nazi War Machine would have Collapsed and Brought the War to an Abrupt End. A Brief History of Forced and Slave Labour Before, During and After World War II. Details of The Nuremberg Trials for German Industrialists - Flick, Krupp and IG Farben.
4 FORCED PROSTITUTION, SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND RAPE - Sexual Crimes Were Not Tried at Nuremberg even though There Were Established Laws Condemning These Crimes. Information About Nazi Military Brothels and Concentration Camp Brothels. Evidence and Testimonies from Witnesses. Both Axis and Allied Forces were Guilty of Sexual Violence and Rape.
5 NAZI DOCTORS EXPERIMENTS AND TRIALS - The Nazi Doctors' Nuremberg Trial and Details of Their Experiments. Names of Nazi Doctors who Escaped Prosecution. Information about Post War Unethical Experiments Without Informed Consent, in the USA, Russia, South Africa and Israel.
6 STERILIZATION AND EUTHANASIA PROGRAMS - Life “Unworthy of Life” A Brief History of the Sterilization and the Euthanasia Programs and German Public Opposition. Using Cost Benefits Analysis in Nazi Medicine to Educate Children.
7 WORLD WAR II BY DESIGN – THE ECONOMY AND FOREIGN INVESTORS - An Important Component of Nazi Germany's War Infrastructure. Brief History of the German Economy and Hermann Goering's Four Year Plan. Role of Jewish Public Protests and their Boycott of German Goods in 1933 and Germany's Retaliatory Actions. The Real Role of Neutral Countries During the War. Post War Looting of German Patents, Cover Up of German Research on Tobacco and Cancer and the Removal/Kidnap of Nazi Experts to Allied Countries. The Role of Foreign Subsidiaries/Investors before and during World War II in Germany.
8 UNWCC (UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES COMMISSION) LAW REPORTS - The UNWCC prepared and published a 15 volume set of law reports covering 89 War Crimes Trials From World War II. This post contains links to all of these law reports and a list of the cases in each volume. Some information on CROWCASS (Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects).

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NAZI GERMANY- UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES COMMISSION (UNWCC)

WHAT WAS THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES COMMISSION (UNWCC)?
The UNWCC was an international committee established by the Allies in October 1943 to find and prosecute war criminals. Representatives of Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, India, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, the United States, Yugoslavia, and Ethiopia participated in the UNWCC. The Soviet Union did not join, it cooperated in spirit(!!!). In other words, Stalin & Associates, were openly opposed to the goals of the UNWCC.

The aims of the UNWCC were to
  • Investigate Nazi Crimes, Record Details and Help Prepare Indictments
  • Ensure War Criminals were Arrested and Evidence of Their Crimes Exposed
  • Identify the Legal Basis for the Punishment and Extradition of War Criminals
  • Determine Which Actions Should Be Included Under The Heading of "Crimes Against Humanity," Including the Crime of Genocide.
The UNWCC completed its first list of German and Italian war criminals in December 1944. It contained 712 names, all of them submitted by European governments. Among those named were forty-nine high ranking Nazi officials. In addition to Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, and Hans Frank, the group of forty-nine consisted of generals, administrators of occupied regions, and political appointees such as Joachim von Ribbentrop, Konstantin von Neurath, Hjalmar Schacht, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart.

The UNWCC also called for the institution of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and other courts, and helped establish the official lists of war criminals---registering 36,000 suspected war criminals. The UNWCC was dissolved in 1948 due to rising Cold War tensions and the failure of various countries to cooperate with their obligations to extradite suspected war criminals. In other words, various countries were playing both sides.

The UNWCC ultimately presented 80 lists that contained the names of 36,529 suspected war criminals (of whom 34,270, were German and 1,286 Italian).


WHAT WAS CROWCASS? (Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects)
To assist the UNWCC and Allied governments in tracing ex-enemy nationals suspected of committing war crimes or atrocities in Europe, a Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects (CROWCASS) was set up by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in the spring of 1945. The object of CROWCASS was to provide a pool of information on persons in Allied detention and those wanted on war crimes charges, on which national governments could draw and to which they were encouraged to contribute. CROWCASS published lists of detainees and wanted persons, similar in format to those produced by the UNWCC.

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UNWCC LAW REPORTS OF WORLD WAR II TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS

The UNWCC prepared and published a 15 volume set of law reports covering 89 War Crimes Trials. These volumes did not include every Trial, after World War II.

Volume XV in the series, contains an alphabetical index to the cases covered. Given that I was unable to find a simple list of cases by volume and with page numbers, I have prepared one myself, for this post.

All of the Volumes are accessible at this link - US Library of CongressMilitary Legal Resources – Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals. A link to each volume is also provided below with the Cases.



VOLUME I - THE CASES

1. THE PELEUS TRIAL ..P1
2. THE DOSTLER TRIAL ..P22
3. THE ALMELO TRIAL ..P35
4. THE HADAMAR TRIAL ..P46
5. THE SCUTTLED V-BOATS CASE ..P55
6. THE JALUIT ATOLL CASE ..P71
7. THE DREIERWALDE CASE ..P81
8. THE ESSEN LYNCHING CASE ..P88
9. THE ZYKLON B CASE ..P93

ANNEX I - BRITISH LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY COURTS ..P105
ANNEX II - UNITED STATES LAW AND PRACTICE CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS AND MILITARY GOVERNMENT COURTS ..P111

VOLUME IITHE CASES
10. THE BELSEN TRIAL ..P1
ANNEX - TABLE OF' ACCUSED ..P153


VOLUME III – THE CASES
11. TRIAL OF KRIMINALASSISTENT KARL-HANS HERMANN KLINGE - Eidsivating Lagmannsrett and the Supreme Court of Norway, 8th December, 1945, and 27th February, 1946 ..P1
12. TRIAL OF KRIMINALSEKRETAR RICHARD WILHELM HERMANN BRUNS AND TWO OTHERS - Eidsivating Lagmannsrett and the Supreme Court of Norway 20th March and 3rd July, 1946 ..P15
13. TRIAL OF ROBERT WAGNER AND SIX OTHERS - French Permanent Military Tribunal, Strasbourg and Court of Appeal - 23rd April -3rd May and 24th July, 1946 ..P23
14. TRIAL OF GUNTHER THIELE AND GEORG STEINERT - United States Military Commission, Augsburg, Germany - 13th June, 1945 ..P56
15. TRIAL OF PETER BACK - United States Military Commission, Ahrweiler, Germany - 16th June, 1945 ..P60
16. TRIAL OF ALBERT BURY AND WILHELM HAFNER - United States Military Commission, Freising, Germany - 15th July, 1945 ..P62
17 and 18. TRIALS OF ANTON SCHOSSER AND OF JOSEF GOLDBRUNNER AND ALFONS JACOB WILM - United States Military Commissions at Dachau 14th-15th and 17th September, 1945 ..P65
19. TRIAL OF ERICH KILLINGER AND FOUR OTHERS - British Military Court, Wuppertal - 26th November-3rd December, 1945 ..P67
20. TRIAL OF YAMAMOTO CHUSABURO - British Military Court, Kuala Lumpur - 30th January-1st February, 1946 ..P76

ANNEX I - NORWEGIAN LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS ..P81
ANNEX II - FRENCH LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY TRIBUNALS AND BY MILITARY GOVERNMENT COURTS IN THE FRENCH ZONE OF GERMANY ..P93
ANNEX III - UNITED STATES LAW AND PRACTICE CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS, MILITARY-GOVERNMENT COURTS AND MILITARY TRIBUNALS ..P103

VOLUME IV – THE CASES
21. TRIAL OF GENERAL TOMOYUKI YAMASHITA - United States Military Commission, Manila (8th October - 7th December, 1945) and the Supreme Court of the United States (Judgements Delivered on 4th February, 1946) ..P1
22.THE ABBAYE ARDENNE CASE. TRIAL OF S.S. BRIGADEFUHRER KURT MEYER - Canadian Military Court, Aurich, Germany (10th-28th December 1945 ..P97
23. TRIAL OF MAJOR KARL RAUER AND SIX OTHERS - British Military Court, Wuppertal, Germany (18th February, 1946) ..P113
24. TRIAL OF KURT STUDENT - British Military Court, Luneberg, Germany, 6th-10th May, 1946 ..P118

ANNEX - CANADIAN LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY COURTS ..P125

VOLUME V – THE CASES
25. TRIAL OF LIEUTENANT GENERAL SHIGERU SAWADA AND THREE OTHERS - United States Military Commission, Shanghai (27th February, 1946 -15th April, 1946) ..P1
26. TRIAL OF SERGEANT-MAJOR SHIGERU OHASHI AND SIX OTHERS - Australian Military Court, Rabaul (20th-23rd March, 1946) .. P25
27. TRIAL OF CAPTAIN EITARO SHINOHARA AND TWO OTHERS - Australian Military Court, Rabaul (3o'th March-1st April, 1946)..P32
28. TRIAL OF CAPTAIN EIKICHI KATO - Australian Military Court, Rabaul (7th May, 1947) ..P37
29. TRIAL OF KARL BUCK AND 10 OTHERS - British Military Court, Wuppertal, Germany - (6th-10th May, 1946) ..P39
30. TRIAL OF KARL ADAM GOLKEL AND 13 OTHERS - British Military Court, Wuppertal, Germany (15th-21st May, 1946) ..P45
31. TRIAL OF WERNER ROHDE AND EIGHT OTHERS - British Military Court, Wuppertal, Germany (29th May-1st June, 1946) ..P54
32. TRIAL OF LIEUTENANT-GENERAL HARUKEI ISAYAMA AND SEVEN OTHERS - United States Military Commission, Shanghai (1st-25th July, 1946) ..P60
33. TRIAL OF GENERAL TANAKA HISAKASU AND FIVE OTHERS - United States Military Commission, Shanghai (13th August-3rd September, 1946) ..P66
34. TRIAL OF HAUPTSTURMFUHRER OSCAR HANS - Eidsivating Lagmannsrett, January, 1947 and Supreme Court of Norway, August, 1947 ..P82

ANNEX - AUSTRALIAN LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BY MILITARY COURTS ..P94

VOLUME VI – THE CASES
35. TRIAL OF JOSEF ALTSTOTTER AND OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 17th February-4th December, 1947 ..P1
36. TRIAL OF GERHARD FRIEDRICH ERNST FLESCH - Frostating Lagmannsrett and Supreme Court of Norway, November-December, 1946 and February, 1948 ..P111


VOLUME VII - THE CASES
37. TRIAL OF HAUPTSTURMFUHRER AMON LEOPOLD GOETH - Supreme National Tribunal of Poland (27th-31st August and 2nd-5th September, 1946) ..P1
38. TRIAL OF OBERSTURMBANNFUHRER RUDOLF FRANZ FERDINAND HOESS - Supreme National Tribunal of Poland (1lth-29th March, 1947) ..P11
39. TRIAL OF ERHARD MILCH - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg (20th December, 1946-17th April, 1947) ..P27
40. TRIAL OF GUSTAV BECKER, WILHELM WEBER AND 18 OTHERS - Permanent Military Tribunal at Lyon (Concluded 17th July, 1947) ..P67
41. TRIAL OF JEAN-PIERRE LEX - Permanent Military Tribunal at Nancy (concluded 13th May, 1946) ..P74
42. TRIAL OF HEINRICH GERIKE AND SEVEN OTHERS (The Velpke Children's Home Case) - British Military Court, Brunswick (20th March-3rd . April, 1946) ..P76

ANNEX - POLISH LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS ..P82

VOLUME VIII – THE CASES
43. TRIAL OF GENERAL VON MACKENSEN AND GENERAL MAELZER - British Military Court, Rome (18th-30th November, 1946) ..P1
44. TRIAL OF ALBERT KESSELRING - British Military Court, Venice (17th February to 6th May, 1947) ..P9
45. TRIAL OF CARL BAUER, ERNST SCHRAMECK AND HERBERT FALTEN - French Permanent Military Tribunal, Dijon (Completed 18th October, 1945) ..P15
46. TRIAL OF FRANZ HOLSTEIN AND TWO OTHERS - French Permanent Military Tribunal, Dijon (Completed 3rd February, 1947) ..P22
47. TRIAL OF WILHELM LIST AND OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg 8th July, 1947, to 19th February, 1948 (The Hostages Trial) ..P34

VOLUME IX THE CASES
48. TRIAL OF FRIEDRICH FLICK AND FIVE OTHERS - UNITED STATES MILITARY TRIBUNAL, NUREMBERG 20th April to 22nd December, 1947 ..P1
49. TRIAL OF HANS SZABADOS - PERMANENT MILITARY TRIBUNAL AT CLERMONT-FERRAND Judgement delivered on 23rd June, 1946 ..P59
50. TRIAL OF ALOIS AND ANNA BOMMER AND THEIR DAUGHTERS - PERMANENT MILITARY TRIBUNAL AT METZ Judgement delivered on 19th February, 1947 ..P62
51. TRIAL OF KARL LINGENFELDER - PERMANENT MILITARY TRIBUNAL AT METZ Judgement delivered on 11th March, 1947 ..P67
52. TRIAL OF CHRISTIAN BAUS - PERMANENT MILITARY TRIBUNAL AT METZ Judgement delivered on 21st August, 1947 ..P68
53. TRIAL OF PHILIPPE RUST - PERMANENT MILITARY TRIBUNAL AT METZ Judgement delivered on 5th March, 1948 ..P71
54. TRIAL OF KARL-HEINZ MOEHLE - BRITISH MILITARY COURT, HAMBURG 15th to 16th October, 1946 ..P75
55. TRIAL OF HELMUTH VON RUCHTESCHELL - BRITISH MILITARY COURT, HAMBURG 5th to 21st May, 1947 ..P82
56. TRIAL OF OTTO SKORZENY AND OTHERS - GENERAL MILITARY GOVERNMENT COURT OF THE U.S. ZONE OF GERMANY 18th August to 9th September, 1947 ..P90

VOLUME X – THE CASES
57. THE I.G. FARBEN TRIAL. TRIAL OF CARL KRAUCH AND TWENTY-TWO OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg (14th August, 1947-29th July, 1948) .. P1
58. TRIAL OF ALFRIED FELIX ALWYN KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH AND 11 OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg (17th November,1947-30th June, 1948) ..P69

VOLUME XI – THE CASES
59. TRIAL OF TANABE KOSHIRO - Netherlands Temporary Court-Martial, Macassar (5th. February, 1947) ..P1
60. TRIAL OF MARTIN GOTTFRIED WEISS AND 39 OTHERS - General Military Government Court of the United States Zone, Dachau, Germany (15th November-13th December, 1945) ..P5
61. TRIAL OF GENERALOBERST NICKOLAUS VON FALKENHORST - British Military Court, Brunswick (29th July-2nd August, 1946) ..P18
62. TRIAL OF MAX WIELEN AND 17 OTHERS - British Military Court, Hamburg, Germany (lst September, 1947) ..P31
63. TRIAL OF LIEUTENANT-GENERAL KURT MAELZER - United States Military Commission, Florence, Italy (9th-14th September, 1946) ..P53
64. TRIAL OF LIEUTENANT-GENERAL BABA MASAO - Australian Military Court, Rabaul, (28th May-2nd June, 1947) ..P56
65. TRIAL OF TANAKA CHUICHI AND TWO OTHERS - Australian Military Court, Rabaul, 12th July, 1946 ..P62
66. TRIAL OF FRANZ SCHONFELD AND NINE OTHERS - British Military Court, Essen (1 Ith-26th June, 1946) ..P64
67. TRIAL OF JOHANNES OENNING AND EMIL NIX - British Military Court, Borken, Germany (21st and 22nd December, 1945) ..P74
68. TRIAL OF HANS RENOTH AND THREE OTHERS - British Military Court, Elten, Germany (8th-10th January,1946) ..P76
69. TRIAL OF ARNO HEERING - British Military Court, Hanover (25th-26th January, 1946) ..P79
70. TRIAL OF WILLI MACKENSEN - British Military Court, Hanover (28th January, 1946) ..P81
71. TRIAL OF EBERHARD SCHOENGRATH AND SIX OTHERS - British Military Court, Burgsieinfurt, Germany (7th-11th February, 1946) ..P83

ANNEX - NETHERLANDS LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS ..P86

VOLUME XII – THE CASES
72. THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND TRIAL - TRIAL OF WILHELM VON LEEB AND 13 OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 30th December, 1947-28th October, 1948 ..P1


VOLUME XIII - THE CASES
73. TRIAL OF ULRICH GREIFELT AND OTHERS - United States Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 10th October, 1947-lOth March, 1948 ..P1
74. TRIAL OF GAULEITER ARTUR GREISER - Supreme National Tribunal of Poland, 21st June-7th July, 1946 ..P70
75. TRIAL OF ALBERT WAGNER - General Military Government Tribunal of the French Zone of Occupation in Germany (Judgement Delivered on 29th November, 1946) ..P118
76. TRIAL OF WASHIO AWOCHI - Netherlands Temporary Court-Martial at Batavia (Judgement Delivered on 25th October, 1946) ..P122
77. TRIAL OF SUSUKI MOTOSUKE - Netherlands Temporary Court-Martial at Amboina (Judgement Delivered on 28th January, 1948) ..P126
78. TRIAL OF WILHELM GERBSCH - The Special Court in Amsterdam, First Chamber (Judgement Delivered on 28th April, 1948) ..P131
79. TRIAL OF SHIGEKI MOTOMURA AND 15 OTHERS - Netherlands Temporary Court-Martial at Macassar (Judgement delivered on 18th July, 1947) ..P138
80. TRIAL OF HEINZHAGENDORF United States Intermediate Military Government Court at Dachau, Germany, 8th-9th August, 1946 ..P146
81. TRIAL OF ERICH WEISS AND WILHELM MUNDO - United States General Military Government Court at Ludwigsburg, Germany, 9th-10th November, 1945 ..P149
82. TRIAL OF MAX SCHMID - United States General Military Government Court at Dachau, Germany, 19th May, 1947 ..P151

VOLUME XIV – THE CASES
83. TRIAL OF TAKASHI SAKAI - Chinese War Crimes Military Tribunal of The Ministry of National Defence, Nanking (Judgement Delivered on 29th August, 1946) ..P1
84. TRIAL OF LOTHAR EISENTRAGER AND OTHERS - United States Military Commission, Shanghai, China (3rd October, 1946-14th January, 1947) ..P8
85. TRIAL OF DR. JOSEPH BUHLER - Supreme National Tribunal of Poland (17th June-10th July, 1948) .. P23
86. TRIAL OF HANS PAUL HELMUTH LATZA AND TWO OTHERS - Eidsivating Lagmannsrett (Court of Appeal) and the Supreme Court of Norway (18th February, 1947-3rd December, 1948) ..P49
87. TRIAL OF JOSEF HANGOBL - General Military Court, Dachau, Germany (17th-18th October, 1945) ..P86
88. TRIAL OF HANS ALBIN HAUTER - Netherlands Special Court in 's-Gravenhage (The Hague) (Judgement delivered on 4th May, 1948) and Netherlands Special Court of Cassation. (Judgement delivered on 12th January, 1949) ..P89
89. TRIAL OF WILLY ZUEHLKE - Netherlands Special Court in Amsterdam (Judgement delivered on 3rd August, 1948) and Netherlands Special Court of Cassation (Judgement delivered on 6th December, 1948) ..P139

ANNEX: CHINESE LAW CONCERNING TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS ..P152

I. INTRODUCTION
II. THE SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW ..P5
1. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES ACCEPTED BY CIVILIZED NATIONS GENERALLY ..P5
2. INTERSTATE AGREEMENTS ..P10
3. THE DECISIONS OF INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL TRIBUNALS ..P17
4. THE OPINIONS OF QUALIFIED TEXT WRITERS ..P20

III. THE LEGAL BASIS OF COURTS ADMINISTERING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW ..P23
A. PROVISIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW ..P23
B. THE USE MADE BY VARIOUS ALLIED STATES AND COURTS OF THESE PROVISIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW ..P28

IV. THE PARTIES TO CRIMES ..P49
A. RULES RELATING TO COMPLICITY ..P49
B. CATEGORIES OF CRIMINALS ..P58
(i) Party Officials and Administrators ..P59
(ii) Industrialists and Business Men ..P59
(iii) Judges ..P60
(iv) Prosecutors ..P61
(v) Doctors and Nurses ..P61
(vi) Executioners ..P61
(vii) Concentration Camp Inmates ..P61
(viii) Military Officers and Other Superiors ..P62
(a) Trials and Provisions Relevant to the Question of the Burden of Proof ..P63
(b) Trials and Provisions Relevant to the Question of Substantive Law ..P65
(ix) Staff Officers ..P76
(x) Parachute Troops ..P79

V. SOME TYPES OF VICTIMS OF CRIMES ..P80
1. PRISONERS OF WAR ..P80
2. CIVILIANS IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY AND ALLIED CIVILIANS IN ENEMY TERRITORY ..P84
3. EX-ENEMY NATIONALS ..P86

VI. TYPES OF OFFENCES ..P89
A. INCHOATE OFFENCES ..P89
1. INCITEMENT ..P89
2. ATTEMPTS ..P89
3. CONSPIRACIES ..P90

B. WAR CRIMES ..P99
1. OFFENCES AGAINST PRISONERS OF WAR ..P99
(i) The killing of prisoners of war without due cause ..P99
(ii) Denial of a fair trial to prisoners of war ..P99
(iii) Ill-treatment of prisoners of war ..P100
(iv) Denial to prisoners of war of the minimum conditions conducive to life and health ..P101
(v) Causing prisoners of war to perform unhealthy or dangerous work ..P103
(vi) Causing prisoners of war to perform work having a direct connection with the operations of war.P103
(vii) Infringement of the religious rights of prisoners of war ..P105
(viii) Handing over prisoners of war to the S.D. ..P106

2. OFFENCES AGAINST THE SICK AND WOUNDED ..P106
3. OFFENCES AGAINST SURVIVORS OF SUNKEN SHIPS ..P107
4. THE KILLING WITHOUT TRIAL OF CAPTURED SPIES ..P108
5. OFFENCES COMMITTED DURING ACTUAL COMBAT ..P109

6. OFFENCES AGAINST INHABITANTS OF OCCUPIED TERRITORIES ..P113
(i) The unwarranted killing of inhabitants of occupied territories ..P113
(ii) Denial of a fair trial to inhabitants of occupied territories ..P113
(iii) Ill-treatment of inhabitants of occupied territories ..P114
(iv) Subjection to illegal experiments ..P114
(v) Deportation of inhabitants of occupied territories ..P117
(vi) Putting civilians to forced labour ..P119
(vii) Enforced prostitution ..P121
(viii) False imprisonment ..P121
(ix) Denunciation to the occupying authorities ..P121
(x) Illegal recruiting into armed forces ..P121
(xi) Incitement of civilians to take up arms against their own country ..P121
(xii) Genocide ..P122
(xiii) Denationalisation ..P123
(xiv) Invasion of the religious rights of Inhabitants of occupied territories ..P123
(xv) Wholesale substitution of existing courts of law ..P124
(xvi) Offences against property ..P125

7. SOME EXCEPTIONAL CATEGORIES OF WAR CRIMES ..P131
(i) Offences committed in Breach of Surrender Terms ..P131
(ii) The Giving of Unexecuted Orders ..P133
(iii) The Abuse of Red Cross Protection ..P133
(iv) Offences Committed against Dead Bodies ..P134

C. CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY ..P134
D. CRIMES AGAINST PEACE ..P138
E. MEMBERSHIP OF CRIMINAL ORGANISATIONS ..P150

VII. DEFENCE PLEAS ..P155
1. THE PLEA OF SUPERIOR ORDERS ..P157
2. THE PLEA THAT AN ACT WAS LEGAL OR EVEN OBLIGATORY UNDER MUNICIPAL LAW ..P160
3. THE PLEA OF HAVING ACTED IN AN OFFICIAL CAPACITY ..P161
4. THE PLEA THAT THE ALLEGED OFFENCE WAS CARRIED OUT AS A JUDICIAL ACT ..P161
5. THE PLEA OF NULLUM CRIMEN SINE LEGE, NULLA POENA SINE LEGE ..P166
6. THE PLEA OF DURESS ..P170
7. MILITARY NECESSITY ..P175
8. SELF-DEFENCE ..P177
9. THE PLEA OF LEGITIMATE REPRISALS ..P177
10. IGNORANCE OF THE LAW ..P182
11. MISTAKE OF FACT ..P184
12. THE MENTAL CAPACITY OF THE ACCUSED ..P185
13. THE ALLEGED VAGUENESS, UNCERTAINTY OR OBSOLETENESS OF THE LAW ..P185
14. THE PLEA THAT A SHOT PRISONER OF WAR WAS SHOT WHILE ATTEMPTING TO ESCAPE ..P186
15. PLEAS IN MITIGATION OF SENTENCE ..P187

VIII. THE PROCEDURE OF THE COURTS ..P189
1. RIGHT OF ACCUSED TO KNOW THE SUBSTANCE OF THE CHARGE ..P190
2. RIGHT OF ACCUSED TO BE PRESENT AT TRIAL AND TO GIVE EVIDENCE ..P191
3. RIGHT OF ACCUSED TO HAVE AID OF COUNSEL ..P192
4. RIGHT OF THE ACCUSED TO HAVE THE PROCEEDINGS MADE INTELLIGIBLE TO HIM BY INTERPRETATION ..P193
5. RULES REGARDING APPEAL AND CONFIRMATION ..P194
6. STRESS PLACED ON EXPEDITIOUS PROCEDURE ..P197
7. RULES OF EVIDENCE ..P197

IX. PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS ..P200

ANNEX I - CERTAIN JURISDICTIONAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO BELGIAN, CZECHOSLOVAK AND YUGOSLAV COURTS EMPOWERED TO TRY WAR CRIMINALS ..P203

I. THE JURISDICTION OF BELGIAN MILITARY TRIBUNALS OVER WAR CRIMES AND CERTAIN TREASONABLE ACTS ..P203
2. JURISDICTION OF THE PEOPLE'S COURTS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA OVER WAR CRIMINALS AND TRAITORS ..P205
3. JURISDICTION OF YUGOSLAV COURTS OVER WAR CRIMES AND TREASONABLE ACTIVITIES ..P207

ANNEX II: INDEX OF CASES REPORTED OR CITED IN THESE VOLUMES ..P210

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OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION

United Nations War Crimes Commission (Wiki)
Good Article at ENotes - United Nations War Crimes Commission (Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity)
UN Archives (Word Document)United Nations War Crimes Commission. Records, 1901-1949, 1943-1949 (bulk)
UK National Archives - War Crimes of the Second World War - Military Records Information 27
US National Archives - Collection of World War II War Crimes Records

Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects (CROWCASS)

Book: CROWCASS : WANTED LISTS By the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), Published by Naval & Military Press, 2005

Go To This Post For Numerous UDHR Translations:
UDHR (Universal Declaration Of Human Rights) in Arabic, Czech, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian & Spanish - Also Includes links to 359 translations of the UDHR.

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